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Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Epistemic Violence against Female Academics in Nigerian Federal Universities

Janet P. Plang, Sahmicit Kumswa, Godwin Etta Odok

Keywords: Silencing, Epistemic violence, Gender, Academic freedom,Intersectionality

Abstract

Within Nigerian federal universities, thereis acollapseof gender equity into chauvinism as the dignity of female academics is no longer guaranteed in the interests of scholarship. This is entrenched in institutional structures and processes that distort female academics from recognizing the loss of their autonomy, self-confidence, agency and intellectual courage as credible producers of knowledge. Drawing data from eight (8) key female informants, who share their life stories at Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Federal University Wukari, University of Ibadan and University of Jos, this paper engages intersectionality theory to expound how gender inequality in both the Nigerian university system and the Nigerian society is rooted and expressed in systemic and institutional structures and processes that complicate the autonomy, self-confidence, agency and intellectual courage of female academics. Findings established a reversion to silencing scholarship where female academics in Nigerian federal universities are silenced and marginalized as producers of credible knowledge and the female academics themselves are saddled with the burden of proofing this violence without knowing where to turn for help. The paper concludes that a focus on sexual harassment alone as violenceagainst femaleacademicsin Nigerian federaluniversitiesonly addresses micro-dynamics without revealing layers of human interactions that hold precious possibilities for creating institutional structures and processes truly responsive to principles of democratic citizenship and academic freedom. The paper recommends gender sensitization within the Nigerian university system which should extend to Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education Trust Fund and NationalUniversitiesCommission.

Author Biography

Janet P. Plang

Departmentof Sociology

Universityof Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Sahmicit Kumswa

Departmentof Sociology

Universityof Jos, PlateauState, Nigeria

Godwin Etta Odok

Departmentof Sociology

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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Knowledge of Traditional Family Planning Methods among Married Persons in Ogbadibo Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria

Otache Ameh Emmanuel

Keywords: Knowledge, Contraceptives, Traditional Beliefs, Traditional Family Planning

Abstract

Current global efforts are focus at regulating fertility in order to promote healthy living across generations. For developing societies like Nigeria, dependence on traditional family planning methods is necessary in attaining this feat. This is because traditional family planning methods (TFPMs) are known to be cost effective and readily available for use by community members. However, most married persons in Ogbadibo, Nigeria have consistently shown lack of knowledge of traditional contraceptive methods in the area. Adopting a descriptive research design involving 344 married people in three wards (Aioodo I, Orokam II, and Itabono I) of Ogbadibo, Benue State; this paper examines factors influencing the knowledge of TFPMs among married persons in the area. Through the lens of the fertility decision-making model, study results recognized that as communities of Ogbadibo modernize, the family structure is transformed in manners that knowledge; motivation; and assessment of fertility regulations become the bases for family planning decision-making. Majority of married people (75.5%) could not mention any TFPM that they know. Only 13.4% mentioned rhythm and withdrawal methods as the TFPM that they know. Television, radio as well as health personnel are main sources through which information and knowledge on TFPMs is disseminated in Ogbadibo Local Government Area. The study recommends that community leaders and elders should work to abolish traditional beliefs that are inimical to birth control and promote knowledge of TFPMs among married people; while advocacy should be intensify toward encouraging smaller family sizes in communities of Ogbadibo Local Government Area.

Author Biography

Otache Ameh Emmanuel

Sociology Department,

University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

otachee@unijos.edu.ng; amehemmanuelot@gmail.com

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Rural Dwellers’ Use, Attitude and Practice of Forest Resource Conservation in Ogun State, Nigeria

Ayodeji P. Ifegbesan, Solomon W. Zitta

Keywords: Rural dwellers, forest, conservation, resources, environmental education, Nigeria

Abstract

This paper examines attitudes and practices of forest resource conservation among rural dwellers in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. The paper explored elements influencing disparities in forest resource conservation among these rural dwellers. Through stratified random sampling, three hundred (300) households were selected for questionnaire administration. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means and Pearson-product moment correlation. The study revealed that there are numerous uses for forest resources, including those for energy and fiber production, construction, and the production of food and medicine. The study's results showed positive attitudes and practices towards forest resources conservation. Religion was found to be related to attitude to forest conservation. Also, educational background showed a positive relationship with attitudes and practice. Consequently, it is observed that forest resources are utilized in a wide range of ways. The study recommends that rural communities in Ogun State, Nigeria be exposed to holistic, community-based environmental education programmes.

Author Biography

Ayodeji P. Ifegbesan, Ph.D.

Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Faculty of Education,

Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. 

Email: ifegbesan.ayodeji@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng

Solomon W. Zitta, Ph.D.

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences,

Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria.

Corresponding author; wuyepsolomon@plasu.edu.ng

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An Appraisal of N-power Programme and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

Danjuma Mohammed, Efuna John Danladi, Nweke Sunday

Keywords: Skills, Beneficiary, N-Power, Poverty, Poverty reduction, Unemployment

Abstract

Despite several efforts at reducing poverty in Nigeria, reports indicate that about 90.8 million Nigerians, representing 46.4% of its estimated 195.6 million people are living in extreme poverty, making Nigeria a country with the highest number of life-threatening poor people in the world. In attempts to correct this narrative, the National Social Investments Programme (N-SIP) was launched by the Nigerian Federal Government as a strategy for combating poverty and unemployment in the country. The N- SIP programme consists of four components which involve: Job Creation and Youth Empowerment (N- Power); National Home Grown School Feeding Programme (NHGSFP); National Cash Transfer Programme (NCTP); and Government Enterprise and Empowerment Programme (GEEP). In an attempt to appraise the performance of N-Power and how this programme has achieved poverty reduction in Nigeria, this paper reviewed secondary sources of data focused at expounding personal, interpersonal and environmental resources made available by N-Power to Nigerians which empower and motivate Nigerian youth to perform valid social roles and activities aimed at improving their living conditions. Analyses in the paper hinge on the Empowerment Theory. Major findings established that uncertainties in policy direction of the Nigerian Federal Government negatively impact on the efficiency of the N-Power’s participants and volunteers, as they believe that their job with the government is not secured. The paper recommends that N-Power participants and volunteers should be carried along in the formulation and implementation of policies, programmes and projects aimed at reducing poverty through the provision of skills acquisition training for unemployed Nigerian youths.

Author Biography

Danjuma Mohammed

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

E-mail: dm4545392@gmail.com

Efuna John Danladi

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

E-mail: johnefuna@gmail.com

Nweke Sunday

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

E-mail: nwekesunday42@gmail.com

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Analyzing Impacts of Entrepreneurship Development on Economic Growth in Nigeria using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

Akinromade Olabimpe Wakilat, Oladipo Abimbola Oluwaseun, Lawal Elisha Omotunde

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Economic growth, Development, Entrepreneur, Interest Rate

Abstract

This paper examines impacts of entrepreneurship development on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1981 to 2017. In this period, several job creation policies of the Nigerian government focused at attaining free enterprise economy in the country. Data for the paper emerged through a systematic review of annual time series data from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) involving credit to SMEs (CRSM), percentage of commercial banks’ shares to SMEs (PTCR), credit to private sector (CRPS), unemployment rate (UEPR), inflation rate (INFR), and interest rate (INTR) as explanatory variables; and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the proxy for economic growth, as the dependent variable. The vector error correction technique was utilized to check the speed of adjustment from the short run disequilibrium to long run equilibrium position. From the results of the regression, variables such as CRSM, CRPS, PTCR were found to have significant positive impacts on the economic growth of Nigeria; while INTR, INFL and UEPR had insignificant negative impact on the GDP. The F-statistic shows that the variables are jointly statistically significant to economic growth in Nigeria. The study concludes that entrepreneurship development has significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. The paper recommends that commercial banks should encourage financial inclusion in manners that Nigerian entrepreneurs are given easy access to loans. Consequently, there should be a reduction in interest rates as high interest rates deter aspiring entrepreneurs. Commercial banks in Nigeria should review collateral conditions to encourage entrepreneurs to easily access loans.

Author Biography

Akinromade, Olabimpe Wakilat

Department of Economics,

Nigeria Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

Oladipo, Abimbola Oluwaseun

Department of Economics,

Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Lawal, Elisha Omotunde

Department of Vocational and Technical Studies,

Federal College of Forestry, Kaduna, Nigeria

Corresponding author: adeyinusa@gmail.com

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Ethno-Religious Conflicts and Emergence of Residential Patterns in Plateau and Bauchi States, Nigeria

Aliyu Mustapha, Ewhrudjakpor Christian

Keywords: Ethnic, Religion, Beliefs, Conflict Resolution, Residential Pattern

Abstract

This paper examines ethno-religious conflicts and the emergence of residential patterns in Jos North, Jos South (Plateau State), Toro and Tafawa Balewa (Bauchi State) Local Government Areas in Nigeria. The Intractable Conflict Theory and Territorial Imperative Theory provided the lenses through which issues relating to the uncovering of remote causes of the protracted ethno- religious conflicts in Plateau and Bauchi States, and how these protracted ethno-religious conflicts impact on the socio-economic development of Plateau and Bauchi States were examined. The survey research design was adopted for this study which involves the use of multi stage and purposive sampling techniques where 382 respondents emerged as the study sample. Quantitative data that emerged in the study were analyzed through the use of frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Regression statistical technique was employed to test the study’s hypotheses. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 26) was used to run the statistical techniques adopted. The study’s results indicate that a major cause of the ethno-religious conflicts in Plateau and Bauchi States, Nigeria, which necessitates residential segregation patterns, is religion intolerance. Results also established that protracted ethno-religious conflicts in Plateau and Bauchi States significantly impact on livestock production in these States. The paper recommends that governments at all levels in Plateau and Bauchi States should initiate and implement programmes that create good relationships between Muslims and Christians on bases of informed appreciation and unbiased judgment of one another's foundational beliefs.

Author Biography

Aliyu Mustapha

Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University of Kashere,

Gombe State, Nigeria.

Email: aliyumust@gmail.com, aliyumustapha@fukashere.edu.ng

Ewhrudjakpor Christian

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences,

Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.

Email: acadchris@gmail.com

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Campaign Financing and Corruption During 2015 General Elections in Taraba State, Nigeria

Wonotanzokan Nzeda Tagowa, Aliyu Dadi Masoyi, Zachariah Peter, Wula James Tyavee

Keywords: Political Parties, Campaign, Corruption, Vote Buying, Campaign Expenditure, Politicians

Abstract

Across democracies of the world, campaign financing greatly influence democratic processes. In democracies of developing nations like Nigeria, money and other inducements significantly influence voters’ decisions. Adopting political corruption’ models of analysis; this study examines how campaign financing during the 2015 general elections reinforced corruption in Taraba State, Nigeria. The study employed the survey research design to collect data using structured questionnaire administered to politicians (25); Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) officers (25); and electorates (25) across the 16 Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria. Results of the study confirmed high cost of campaigns by political parties in Taraba State, Nigeria during the 2015 general elections expressed in vote buying and use of public resources for campaign purposes and this significantly reinforced corruption within Taraba State, Nigeria. Similarly, the study established the lack of effective monitoring laws or mechanisms that govern campaign financing in Taraba State, Nigeria. The study recommends that more effective legislations should be enacted to prohibit the different forms of vote buying and the associated forms of electoral bribery and other malpractices that form the root of political finance-related corruption in Taraba State, Nigeria. Likewise, sanctions should be directed at political parties and against individual party officials involved in illicit transactions during general elections.

Author Biography

Wonotanzokan Nzeda Tagowa

Department of Political Science

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Dadi Masoyi, Zachariah Peter, Wula James Tyavee

Department of Accounting

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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Drivers of Farmers-Herdsmen Conflicts in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

Ahmed Usman

Keywords: Farmers, Herdsmen, Conflict, Grazing Reserves, National Security

Abstract

This study examines the major causes of the Fulani-Agatu conflict in Benue and Nasarawa states. The study utilized Environmental Scarcity Theory as the framework of analysis. A survey research design was adopted where 390 questionnaires were administered across ten (10) council wards in three Local Governments Areas of Benue and Nasarawa States respectively: Agatu (Benue); Nasarawa (Nasarawa); and Doma (Nasarawa). Fifteen (15) key informant interviews and three (3) focus group discussion sessions in Obagaji, Loko and Udeni-Magaji. Quantitative data were analyzed through frequency counts and simple percentages; while qualitative data were content analyzed. Findings of the study identified disappearance of demarcated cattle stock routes; farm encroachment; population increase; and proliferation of sophisticated modern weapons as major drivers of farmers-herdsmen conflicts in Benue and Nasarawa States. Consequently, the study recommends that, the federal Government in collaboration with state governments needs to revive the erstwhile grazing reserves system with improvements for permanent settlements of the Fulani Pastoralists. Also, there is the need for the establishment of ranches by the respective state governments and stringent measures restraining illegal possession of arms by individual need to be urgently put in place by both the federal and state governments.

Author Biography

Ahmed Usman (PhD)

Department of Political Science

Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State

Email:uthmaan01@yahoo.com

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Child Labour and Juvenile Delinquency in Sub-Saharan Africa

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke, Nnamdi Green Onuoha

Keywords: Child labour, juvenile delinquency, routine activity theory, guardianship

Abstract

In recent times, there is increasing prevalence of child labour in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Adopting the Routine Activity Theory, this paper critically examines interrelationships between child labour and delinquency. The paper argues that child labour contributes to juvenile delinquency by de-activating capable guardianship, thereby making youngsters (children aged 5 to 17 years) both motivated offenders and suitable targets. Findings confirm that worst forms of child labour relate to delinquency as both means to delinquency and as delinquency in itself. In this sense, children who have fallen victim to child labour are more likely than others to be veritable ‘tools’ to both delinquency and adult crime later in life. Furthermore, the COVID- 19 pandemic complicates progress made so far in the fight against the increasing incidence of child labour in sub-Saharan Africa. This is as about 8.9 million children will be added into the population of child workers in Sub-Saharan Africa by the end of year 2022. With this, sub-Saharan Africa becomes the region of the world with the highest prevalence (23.9%) and largest number of children in child labour. The paper concludes that the increasing rate of child labour in sub-Saharan Africa is better explained and understood from the standpoint of juvenile delinquency. Thus, the paper recommends the domestication and implementation of Child Right Laws in all the levels of government in countries of sub-Saharan Africa.

Author Biography

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor

Peace and Conflict Unit

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria Corresponding author: nzeakor.ogochukwu@mouau.edu.ng

Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke

Department of Sociology & Anthropology,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Nnamdi Green Onuoha

Peace and Conflict Unit,

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

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Cybercrime Awareness and Cybercrime Victimization in Imo State, Nigeria

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Nnamdi Green Onuoha, Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke

Keywords: Cybercrime, Awareness, Victimization, Risks, Internet Users

Abstract

Despite the increasing incidence of cyber-criminality in Imo State, Nigeria, there is still dearth of evidence expounding public awareness of the incidence and factors precipitating cybercrime vulnerability and victimization among residents of the State. Adopting a cross-sectional survey design rooted in Routine Activity Theory, this study examines the relationship between Internet users’ cybercrime awareness status and their cybercrime victimization experiences. The study’s sample consists of 1,031 respondents drawn from a population of 73,718 Internet users selected from Alvan Ikeoku College of Education, Owerri; Federal Polytechnic, Nekede; Federal University of Technology, Iheagwa; and Imo State University, Owerri. The study’s results showed that cybercrime uninformed Internet users (67%) are more likely to experience cybercrime victimization than cybercrime informed users (19%). The study confirms a statistically significant but high negative relationship between Internet users’ awareness status and their cybercrime victimization experiences, X2(1030) = 69.8, p< 0.05, r =.-9. The study concludes that the volume and distribution of predatory crime such as e-fraud and cyber-bullying in Imo State closely relate to the availability of suitable targets (uninformed Internet users); the absence of capable guardians (lack of adequate cybercrime awareness); and the presence of motivated offenders (cybercrime perpetrators). Thus, the study recommends that increased and adequate public awareness of victimization risks and protective measures represent an important strategy in the prevention of cybercrime in Imo State, Nigeria.

Author Biography

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor

Peace & Conflict Unit,

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

Nnamdi Green Onuoha

Peace & Conflict Unit,

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke

Department of Sociology and Anthropology,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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