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Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Internet Penetration And Cybercrime Attack In Abia State, Nigeria

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Alu Alfred Ede, Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke, Samuel Kalu Obasi

Keywords: Internet, cybercrime attack, online account, ICT gadgets, social media

Abstract

Arguments persist to canvass that a person could be a victim of cybercrime attack if even the person does not have access to the internet. However, prevailing arguments canvassed a correlation between increased internet penetration and increased cybercrime attacks. Thus, this study examines the relationship between internet penetration and cybercrime attacks in Abia State, Nigeria. Data for this study emerged through the administration of questionnaire to 1104 respondents between the ages of 20 years and 70 years in Abia State, Nigeria. The study’s results confirmed that smart phone (61%) and computer (33%) were the most common ICT gadgets owned by respondents. Also, on average, respondents who own smart phone and other gadgets tend to experience more cyberattacks (M = 2.53, S.D = 1.63) than those who own only smart phones (M = 2.17, S.D = 1.41), t(923) = 3.453, p < .05, r = .11. Facebook (24%) and WhatsApp (23%) were the most commonly operated online accounts; followed by email (19%), Instagram (11%), and Internet banking (10.8%). That about 4 in every 5 respondents operated more than one online account. Respondents who operated/owned more than one accounts are more vulnerable to cyber security attacks (M = 2.43) than those operated only one account (M = 2.16) and those who operated no account at all (M = 2. 03), f(923) = 2.889, p = .05, r = .10. The study

Author Biography

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor

Peace & Conflict Studies Unit, School of General Studies

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

Abia State, Nigeria

Alu Alfred Ede

Peace & Conflict Studies Unit, School of General Studies

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Abia State, Nigeria

Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke

Department of Sociology & Anthropology

The Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Samuel Kalu Obasi

Social Science Unit, School of General Studies

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Corresponding author: chibuike.nwoke@unn.edu.ng

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Interrogating Primordialism And Modernism In Nationalism

Edita Muhammad Nma

Keywords: Primordialism, modernist, nationalism, ethnic conflicts, social justice

Abstract

This paper comparatively analyzed two competing theoretical assumptions in the field of nationalism: primordialism and modernist thoughts of nationalism. Primordialism simply argued that nations and national identities are naturally fixed and given, and that ethnic groups are often attributed by share consciousness, belongingness and sometime sentimental in order to achieve group’s interest and aspiration. In contrast, modernists argue that the rise of nations and national identities are product of historical revolution which nations undergo over the years. Historical revolution to modernists is rooted in industrialization and globalization. In interrogating these thoughts of nationalism, the paper’s findings reiterate that both industrialization and globalization have continued to form basis for global interconnectedness without eroding nationalist movements. Thus, nationalist struggles have remained the permanent features of both national and international societies over the years. The paper concludes that primordialist hostilities by ethnic groups toward each other form the prime factor for ethnic conflict in moder society. Likewise, modernists’ wind of globalization and economic disparities among nations is responsible for group’s conflicts in modern society. The paper recommends that social justice, negotiation, and federalism should be advocated as viable instruments for resolving ethnic

conflicts in modern society.

Author Biography

Edita Muhammad Nma

Department of Political Science

Ibrahim Badamasi babangida University,

Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

medita@ibbu.edu.ng, editanma1006@gmail.com

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COVID-19 Lockdown And Unprofessional Conducts Of Security Agents In Nigeria

Michael Christopher Eraye, Zumve Samuel Iornienge

Key words: COVID-19, lockdown, professionalism, security agents, community spread

Abstract

The paper explores the nexus between COVID-19 lockdown and the conduct of security agents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The activities of security operatives in enforcing lockdown restriction during the COVID-19 lockdown uncovered unprofessional conducts exhibited against civilians by the Police and Military deployed to enforce the lockdown restrictions. Through content-analysis of secondary data anchored on Routine Activity Theory, this paper discusses how conducts of security agents during the COVID-19 lockdown vitiate from constitutional provisions of security agents to protect citizens and ensure law and order in the country. The study’s results confirmed that extrajudicial killings, extortion of money from motorists, unwarranted and arbitrary arrest, torture of civilians and harassment were some of the unprofessional conducts exhibited by security agents against civilians during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. The paper concludes that these unprofessional conducts of the security agents, rather than inhibit, facilitate the spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper recommends that security agents should be periodically retrained especially on how to enforce restrictions of government during periods of emergencies, while also adhering to the ethics of their profession. Unprofessional conduct of security agents must be resisted vehemently and culprits be made to face the full weight of the law; and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) must continue to speak up against all the negative activities of security operatives in the course of discharging their constitutional responsibilities.

Author Biography

MICHAEL, Christopher Eraye

Department of Sociology

Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

ZUMVE, Samuel Iornienge

Department of Sociology

Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

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Healthcare Access And Outcomes In Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Dogo Simeon, Victor Ishaya

Keywords: Healthcare, rural, health outcomes, Zangon Kataf, poverty

Abstract

This study examines healthcare access and outcomes in Afana community of Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed health challenges faced by rural communities in Kaduna State, identifying factors contributing to limited healthcare access and disparities in rural communities and health outcomes in the area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design involving 97 respondents who responded to a structured questionnaire. Respondents for the study were selected through a simple random sampling technique. Data collected in the study were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques in the form of frequency counts and percentages; and data were presented in tables and charts. The study’s results show that the impact of socioeconomic disparities on healthcare access in rural communities of Kaduna State has significant burden with limited progress in health outcomes within rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study concludes that income level and poverty are the basic socioeconomic factors having the greatest impact on healthcare access and outcomes in rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that policymakers in Kaduna State should prioritize rural healthcare in the State and allocate adequate funding for primary healthcare infrastructural development. Also, there is need for the upgrade of existing primary healthcare infrastructure and the availability of essential medical equipment and technology in order to enhance the quality and accessibility of healthcare services in rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Author Biography

Dogo Simeon

Geography Department

Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya,

Kaduna, Nigeria

simeondogo@gmail.com

Victor Ishaya

Geography Department

Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya,

Kaduna, Nigeria

sirvkaku@gmail.com

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Complications Of Social Distancing And COVID-19 Pandemic In Nigeria

Frank Ikponmwosa, Thaddeus T. Ityonzughul

Keywords: Social structure, COVID-19; Pandemic; Distancing; Post-COVID

Abstract

The coronavirus popularly referred to as COVID-19 pandemic which broke out in 2019 took the world by storm and altered human social and economic life in both the advanced and developing nations. At its outbreak, people had to grapple with the reality of the social and economic changes which it ushered. In explicating these changes, this paper interrogates the

implications of social distancing and COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The paper specifically examines how framings of social distancing complicated and confused government policies and social interactions at abating the spread of the disease in Nigeria. Evidence for the paper emerged through primary and secondary sources and the social distance theory forms the

theoretical lens through which analyses in this paper were based. Findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the pathetic nature of the Nigerian healthcare system. Also, social distancing restriction imposed by the respective state governments and the federal government of Nigeria as a means of curbing the spread of the virus created food crisis as there was the absence of any meaningful palliative from the government. The paper concludes that the Nigerian State would still be negatively impacted in future pandemics except social structures within the Nigerian society are strengthened to withstand shocks of uncertainties and emergencies.

Author Biography

Frank Ikponmwosa

Department of History and International Studies

University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

frank.ikponmwosa@uniben.edu

Thaddeus T. Ityonzughul

Department of International Studies and Diplomacy

Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria.

ityonzughult@gmail.com

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Analyzing Institutional Quality And Economic Growth In Sub-saharan Africa Using System Generalised Method Of Moments (SGMM)

Ogu Musa Akwe, Suleiman Salusi Maigari, Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Keywords: Economic growth, Gross capital formation, Institutional quality,

Trade Openness

Abstract

Institutional quality is considered to be an important factor in enhancing economic growth of a country. This study investigates the impact of institutional quality on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa using the System Generalized Method of Moments estimation method to a

dynamic panel data for 40 Sub-Saharan Africa countries spanning from 2006-2020. The results of the System Generalized Method of Moments indicate that institutional quality has a significant and positive impact on the economic growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. The results

further revealed that gross capital formation and population have significant and positive effect on economic growth in the region. The study concludes that institutional quality enhances economic growth of Sub-Saharan African countries. The study recommends that governments of the region should encourage independence of institutions to promote economic growth in the region.

Author Biography

Ogu, Musa Akwe

Department of Social Science,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria

Suleiman Salusi Maigari

Department of Economics

Umar Musa Yar’Adua University, Katsina, Nigeria

Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Department of Economics

Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT), Kaduna, Nigeria

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Impact Of Covid-19 Lock Down On Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Keffi Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Abuh Hassan Bashiru

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Lockdown, Small Scale Enterprises,

Performance

Abstract

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic brought about lockdowns that led to the restriction of movements, market closure, social distancing, among others. Consequently, these restrictions and controls of movement have particularly affected Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. To this end, this study examines the impact of the coronavirus pandemic lockdown on traders, general services and manufacturing businesses in Keffi metropolis of Nasarawa State. The study used a sample comprising of 234 SMEs that are involved in retail traders and manufacturing services ranging from paints and soap production, consumables as well as baking businesses. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and interview. Social ecology theory was utilized as the theoretical framework of analysis. The investigation revealed that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on small and medium scale enterprises manifest in low turnout of customers, low income, increase in the cost of goods and services, sales fluctuations, insufficient supply of goods, low demand of goods and services and there was no reduction in the cost/price of goods and services. The study concludes that the impact of COVID-19 lockdown in Keffi metropolis in Nasarawa State, Nigeria is severe as some SMEs could not survive the pandemic lockdown. Thus, the study recommends that SMEs in Keffi metropolis and Nasarawa State in general could improve on their performance by adopting digital marketing to minimize the negative effect of future lockdowns.

Author Biography

Abuh Hassan Bashiru

Department of Political Science

Baba-Ahmed University, Sharada, Kano State

bash4greatness@gmail.com

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Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission And Trust-Building In Implementing The International Court Of Justice Judgement

Umar Abdullahi, Shuaibu Umar Abdul, Mohammed Bello Baban’umma, Mohammed Bello Baban'umma

Keywords: ICJ, Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission, Bakassi Peninsula, trust

Abstract

This study seeks to examine the role of Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission in the promotion of confidence building measures between communities affected by International Court of Justice (ICJ) Judgement of 10th October, 2002, involving Cameroon and Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed how the Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission contributed in re-establishing a degree of trust between the people and the governments of Nigeria and Cameroon. The study adopted the survey research design which entails the collection of data from a cross section of the population. The theoretical framework that guided analyses is the neo-liberal institutionalism

theory. The study’s results showed that the implementation of the ICJ judgment by the Mixed Commission has contributed in the promotion of peace between Cameroon and Nigeria as both parties have shown commitment to renounce the use of force in their bilateral relations and pursue peaceful ways for the settlement of their boundary differences. The study concludes that the activities of the Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission are promoting trust and enabling the provision of basic social amenities such as education and health facilities in the affected Cameroon-Nigeria international border communities. The study recommends that there is the need for the participation of key stakeholders particularly, leaders of the affected populations from both sides in the activities of the Mixed Commission.

Author Biography

UMAR Abdullahi

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

abdullahiumar43@gmail.com

SHUAIBU Umar Abdul

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

altukud2015@gmail.com

MOHAMMED Bello Baban’umma

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi

Mohammed Bello Baban'umma

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Psychological Coping Strategies Of Orphans In Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Bawa Precious Tani, Ubi Mary Otanwa, Dabo Yusuf

Keywords: Orphans, depression, learning disorder, Makarfi, Autonomy, farming

Abstract

In recent years, orphan populations have increased due to rising rates of terrorism, the HIV and AIDS pandemic, accidents, banditry, diseases, and other preventable causes of death. These have negatively impacted the lives of many orphans; as they are faced with lots of challenges leave them helpless. The paper investigates the coping strategies of orphans in Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Through a systematic sampling procedure, the study sample consists of 370 respondents in five wards of Makarfi Local Government Area. One focus group discussion (FGD) was held in each of the five selected wards. Data analysis consists of descriptive statistics involving chi-square and principal component analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 25). The study results and findings established that autonomy, environment mastery, and personal growth are the major factors that affect orphans

psychologically. Orphans with secondary school education have the highest (0.042) psychological well-being, while orphans without any form of education have the lowest (-0.08) psychological well-being. The study concludes that the prevailing coping strategies mostly adopted by orphans in Makarfi Local Government Area are farming (46.8%) and peer relationships (34.8%). The study recommends that governments at all levels should integrate orphans into the National Health Insurance Scheme to enable them to access healthcare with ease and at a lesser cost.

Author Biography

Bawa Precious Tani*

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management,

Federal University Wukari Taraba State, Nigeria

Ubi Mary Otanwa

Department of Geography,

Federal University, Dutsin-Ma Katsina State, Nigeria

Dabo Yusuf

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding author Email: precious@fuwukari.edu.ng

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Leadership Style And Employees’ Performance In Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) Within Gombe State, Nigeria

Aondoaver Cornelius Peke, Ahmed Aliyu Palladan

Keywords: Leadership, decision-making, employee performance, NGOs,

Gombe

Abstract

Employees of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) often work in very risky conditions. The varying conditions require their employees to display different skills in dealing with those they serve. In this way, leaders in non-governmental organization need to display their full leadership skills in order to motivate their employees to attain optimal level of performance. Thus, this study investigates the effects of leadership styles on employee performance at some selected NGOs in Gombe State. A survey research design was used where data was sourced through 112 questionnaire using five points Likert scale and was administered to the respondents. The analysis of the participants’ responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 which generated the response rates, variances, standard errors, R-square statistics, correlation, analyses of variance and t-statistics. The study results reveal that autocratic and laissez faire leadership styles have no significance effect on employee performance in non-governmental organization in Gombe State. While democratic leadership style has significance effect on employee performance in non-governmental organization in Gombe State. The study

concludes that the democratic style of leadership which gives NGO employees a certain freedom and involves them in decision-making motivates NGO employees to more productivity in Gombe State, Nigeria. The study recommends that heads of non-governmental organizations

should encourage more practice of democratic leadership style; as democratic leadership style ensures a well-organized and stable group.

Author Biography

Aondoaver Cornelius Peke

National Malaria Elimination Programme,

Abuja, Nigeria

aondoaver@gmail.com

Ahmed Aliyu Palladan

School of Business, FCET Gombe, Nigeria

aapalladan@live.com

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Nigeria’s 2023 Presidential Election And Negations Of The 2022 Electoral Act

Ochim Fidelis Ikaade, Nebeife Chigozie Joseph, Chinwuba Michael Emeka

Keywords: Electoral Act, BVAS, IReV, INEC, democracy

Abstract

Evidences prevail to contend that electoral administration play a vital role in ensuring the fairness, transparency and legitimacy of elections in democratic societies. The high premium placed on electoral administration is due to its capacity to engender electoral integrity which is foundational to the entrenchment of a credible electoral process. In this regard, this paper examines electoral administration and the electoral process of the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper argues that the Nigerian Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting general elections, introduced the use of Bimodal Voter Accreditation System (BVAS) for the 2023 elections in order to curb electoral malpractices experienced in previous elections. However, the failure of INEC to stick to its own guidelines as it failed to post the results of the 2023 presidential election from the polling units on the INEC Result Viewing Portal (IReV) tends to undermine the integrity of the electoral process in the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper’s findings established negation of the Electoral Act by INEC in the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper concludes that negation of the Electoral Act by INEC is a worrisome trajectory that has detrimental impacts on the quality of Nigerian electoral process. The paper recommends that there is need for increased transparency and accountability by INEC, as well as better collaboration between INEC and civil society organizations in order to ensure credible electoral process that will reflect the will of the Nigerian people.

Author Biography

Ochim, Fidelis Ikaade

Department of Political Science,

Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

e-mail:ochimfidelis@yahoo.com

Nebeife, Chigozie Joseph

Department of Political Science,

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State

e-mail:cjnebeife@gmail.com

Chinwuba Michael Emeka

Federal university Wukari Taraba State

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Impact Of Menu Design On Customers’ Satisfaction In Selected Hotels In Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria

Clement Ukayi Anake, Nyikyaa Wilfred Terseer

Key words: Hotel, Customer, Satisfaction, Menu, Hospitality

Abstract

Menu design has shown potential in influencing hotel customers’ satisfaction and restaurant customers’ food choice. In ascertaining this influence, this study assesses the impact of menu design on customers’ satisfaction in hotels within Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. The

gaze motion theory was adopted as the theoretical framework for the study. The study’s sample consists of one hundred and sixty-two (162) respondents who were selected through the use simple random sampling. The structured questionnaire and indepth interview form the main sources of data collection in the study. The collated data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 23). Data analysis involved descriptive statistical tools including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. The study results and findings revealed that menu design has positive impact on customers’ satisfaction in hotels within

Makurdi metropolis. The results and findings also revealed that menu design assist customers in making more informed choices and customers perceived the menu in hotels under study to be highly attractive and visually appealing. The study recommends that hospitality professionals

should pay more attention to menu design attributes by improving on their menus in order to be competitive in the industry as they are major marketing tools in the hotel and restaurant industry.

Author Biography

Clement Ukayi Anake

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State Nigeria

anaclem@yahoo.com

Nyikyaa Wilfred Terseer

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State Nigeria

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Moderating Effect Of Money Supply On Inflation Rate And Economic Growth In Nigeria (1981-2021)

Ahmadu Ezekiel, Alfred Cyprain Bognet, Darius Akan Yashim, Clement Chindo Rebin

Keywords: Growth, Inflation, Money, Supply

Abstract

Economically, a rise in money supply causes inflation which eventually leads to a decline in economic growth. In this way, there is need for the moderation of money supply in an economy, as this has impact on inflation rate and economic growth in a given country. Using the

Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model, this study investigates the moderating effect of money supply on the relationship between inflation rate and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981 to 2021. The results of the interaction model revealed that money supply has significant effect on the relationship between inflation rate and economic growth in Nigeria both in the short run and long run. Specifically, the results showed that with an increase in money supply, inflation rate significantly reduced economic growth in Nigeria. The results of the marginal effect also showed that at maximum level of money supply in Nigeria, inflation rate significantly reduced economic growth in the country. However, at average and minimum level of money supply, inflation rate had insignificant negative impact on economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981 to 2021. Based on the results, the study recommends that government should pay closer attention to the high rate of inflation in the economy and take swift action to lower it by reducing the amount of money in circulation. In order to accomplish this, the relevant government agencies should work to stop money leaks, theft, and diversion.

Author Biography

Ahmadu, Ezekiel

Economics Department,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

ezekielahmadu@gmail.com

Alfred Cyprain Bognet

Kaduna State Planning and Budget Commission

alfredbognet7@gmail.com

Darius Akan Yashim

Department of Economics, Kaduna State University

darius.yashim@kasu.edu.ng

Clement Chindo Rebin

Kaduna State Planning and Budget Commission

klementrebin@gmail.com

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Income Poverty Reduction Through N-Power Scheme In Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Fred Osahon Okunmahie, Abel Enoguanmwonsa Ovenseri

Keywords: N-Power, Scheme, Poverty, Income, Ikpoba Okha

Abstract

This study examines how the N-Power scheme has worked to reduce income poverty among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. The study utilized the empowerment theory as the framework of analysis. The population of the study comprises NPower enrollees who served in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State. The study’s sample consists of three hundred and thirty respondents who responded to the study’s questionnaire. The study’s major results revealed that the N-Teach component of the N-Power scheme had a strong positive impact on income poverty reduction among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. The study concludes that the N-Teach component of the NPower scheme largely contributed to the reduction of income poverty among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State. Consequently, the study recommends that successive governments in Nigeria should consolidate and deepen the N-Power scheme so that more unemployed Nigerians can benefit from the scheme.

Author Biography

Fred Osahon Okunmahie
Department of Political Science and Public Administration
Edo State University, Uzairue, Edo State, Nigeria
fred.okunmahie@gmail.com
Abel Enoguanmwonsa Ovenseri
Department of Public Administration
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
abelovenseri@gmail.com

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