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Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Politics of Nigeria-South Africa Trade and Investments Relations

Garba Mohammed

Keywords: Pan-Africanism, diplomacy, trade, cooperation, conflict

Abstract

This paper examines trade and investment relations between Nigeria and South Africa. The paper interrogates intrigues around NigeriaSouth Africa socio-economic and diplomatic relations. The paper relied on secondary sources of data collection which include newspapers, magazine, journals, theses and periodicals. Major findings revealed that socio-economic and diplomatic relations between Nigeria and South Africa potray a typical hypocrisy in the international security architecture. This is as Nigeria-South Africa trade and investments relations vacillate between cooperation and conflicts depending on each country’s foreign policy, regime type, domestic intricacies and international diplomacy. The paper recommends that the pursuit of foreign policy and national interest between Nigeria and South Africa should be rooted in values and ethos of Afro-centricism and Pan-Africanism.

Author Biography

Garba Mohammed (Ph.D)

Department of Political Science,

University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 

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Political Economy of Nigeria’s Land Borders Closure

Christopher Ikem Olisah , Paul Solomon and Joshua Oji Zachariah

Keywords: Security, economy, border closure, inflation, standard of living

Abstract

This paper examines how the ban on movements of persons and goods across Nigeria’s land borders impacts on internal domestic political and economic issues. The paper employs the historical research design which reviewed and content analyzed secondary data from textbooks, periodicals, journal articles, newspapers, seminar/conference papers and magazines. Data analysis was anchored on Push and Pull Theory and Economic Nationalism. Major findings revealed that smuggling activities have not been stopped in Nigeria due to the porous nature of Nigeria’s land borders; consequently, insecurity and inflation have been on the increase since the closure of Nigeria’s land borders in 2019. The paper concludes that despite the Nigerian federal government’s acclaimed success for closure of the nation’s land borders, this closure has not yielded any significant long-term success to address daunting political and economic challenges bedeviling the country. The paper recommends the modernization of customs/immigration operations alongside other related border security agencies, wherein these agencies use more advanced information technology management procedures that enhance accountability and transparency. Similarly, concerted realistic policies with robust security synergy between Nigeria and other neighbouring countries in the fight against transborder crimes should be intensify, instead of resorting to land borders closure which has negative effects on the politics and economy of Nigeria.

Author Biography

Christopher Ikem Olisah1

Paul Solomon1

Joshua Oji Zachariah1,2*

1Department of Political Science,

Federal University Wukari, Nigeria

2Department of Political Science,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Corresponding Author*:ozachjosh@gmail.com, zachariahjo@fuwukari.edu.ng

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Determinants of Deviant Behaviour among Employees of Small Scale Enterprises in Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Michael Christopher Eraye, Adaka Sunday Simeon

Keywords: Deviant behaviour, small scale, enterprise, employees, employers

Abstract

This study explores factors influencing deviant behaviour among employees of small scale enterprises in Lafia Metropolis. The study investigates the most common forms of deviant behaviour; identifying socio-economic, socio-psychological, socio-cultural factors influencing deviant behaviour among employees of small scale enterprises in Lafia Metropolis. The study employed the survey research design with a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research components. The sample for the study consists of 396 respondents who were selected through simple random and purposive sampling methods. Quantitative data were analyzed through frequency tables and chi-square; while qualitative data were analyzed through manual content analysis and ethnographic summaries. Findings revealed that lack of respect for other workers, disrespect for customers and increase in the price of items for personal gains are types of deviant behaviour committed by employees of small scale enterprises in Lafia metropolis. The study recommends that employers of employees of small scale enterprises in Lafia metropolis must ensure that their workers are paid salaries without unnecessary delay and the managers of small-scale enterprises should ensure that work environment is not characterized by harshness.

Author Biography

Michael, Christopher Eraye

Adaka, Sunday Simeon

Department of Sociology,

Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State-Nigeria

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Feminization of Corporate Governance Structure and Financial Statement Fraud Reduction in Nigeria’s Listed Insurance Companies

Anaeto Chinaeme Abigail, Eche Nwachukwu Austine, Akeem Adetokun

Keywords: Audit Committee, Beneish M-Score, Gender Diversity, Corporate Governance, Fraud

Abstract

This study examines the effect of corporate governance structure on financial statement fraud likelihood of listed insurance companies in Nigeria for the period 2014 to 2019. Corporate governance structure was proxied with board size, board gender diversity, audit committee meeting frequency and audit committee independence. While financial statement fraud likelihood was measured with Beneish MScore. The study employed ex post facto and causal research design, while secondary data were extracted from financial reports and accounts of the listed insurance companies. The study employed binary logistic panel regression as the technique of data analysis and it found that board gender diversity, audit committee meeting frequency and audit committee independence have significant negative effect on financial statement fraud likelihood while board size has no significant effect on financial statement fraud likelihood. The study concludes that the size of a board does not reduce financial statement fraud. However, the board gender diversity, audit committee meeting frequency and audit committee independence have significant impact in reducing financial statement fraud in Nigeria’s listed insurance companies. Consequently, for board gender diversity to significantly improve fraud reduction in Nigeria’s listed insurance companies, the focus of board size should be on the quality of the board. Thus, insurance firms in Nigeria should increase the number of female members in the board as this will increase the capacity of the board of directors to checkmate fraud. Also, audit committee should meets frequently and the number of independent members in the audit committee should be statutorily increased.

Author Biography

Anaeto Chinaeme Abigail

Department of Banking and Finance,

Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

Eche Nwachukwu Austine

Department of Economics,

Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

Akeem Adetokun

Department of Banking and Finance,

Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

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Farmers-Herders Conflict and Livelihood of Agrarian Farmers in South Eastern Nigeria

Ndukwe Onyinyechi Kelechi, Victor Ularju Pius

Keywords: Farmers, herders, conflict, food insecurity, livelihood

Abstract

This paper interrogates the implications of farmers-herders’ conflict on livelihood of agrarian farmers in south eastern, Nigeria. Cordial relationship had hitherto existed between farmers and herders in Nigeria but the increasing transhumance movement of herders to south eastern and other regions in search of livestock’s feed has come with many security challenges that threaten the livelihood of agrarian farmers in south eastern Nigeria. The paper reviewed secondary data and the Marxist political economy theory is used as the theoretical framework. Major findings revealed that conflicts related to farmers and herders in south eastern Nigeria are homegrown as farmers in this region of the country have been experiencing significant crop damage due to incessant encroachment of herders’ cattle onto their farms which has affected their livelihood, traditional farming system, low crop yield and consumption pattern. The paper concludes that farmersherders’ conflicts constitute serious threats to national security, development and means of livelihoods for farmers in south eastern Nigeria. Thus, the paper recommends that there is need to re-orientate the herders towards combining their traditional pattern of grazing with mechanized form and revisit establishment of grazing areas which had been neglected and abandoned. Also, alternative dispute resolution effort should be encouraged at community levels in communities of south eastern Nigeria.

Author Biography

Ndukwe Onyinyechi Kelechi, PhD

Victor Ularju Pius 

Department of Political Science,

University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

onyinyechikelechi@yahoo.com, victorularjupius@gmail.com

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A Sociological Analysis of Nomadic Pastoralists and Farmers’ Conflict in Nigeria

Abdullahi Lawal Dangiwa

Keywords: Ranches, herders, frustration-aggression, violence

Abstract

In Nigeria, conflicts between nomadic pastoralists and farmers have been among the most serious security challenges that have led to major setbacks in the nation’s socio-economic development. This paper provides a sociological assessment of the menace of nomadic pastoralists and farmers conflicts in Nigeria. The paper utilized materials obtained from secondary sources of data including journals, newspapers, magazines and textbooks. The paper used frustrationaggression as its theoretical lens. The paper identified illegal trespass on farmlands for grazing purposes, government failure in enacting and implementing policies that can mitigate farmer-herders conflict, proliferation of small and light weapons, corruption, greed and selfishness, weak security system and porous borders as the major causes of violent clashes between nomadic pastoralists and farmers in Nigeria. The paper recommends that government at all levels; communities and other stakeholders should formulate and implement legislations that prohibit open grazing while also encouraging and supporting herders to establish ranches for their animals. Nigerian government and other security stakeholders should work hard to address the issue of proliferation of small and light weapons into the country because the use of such weapons escalates the level of violence and triggers the need for reprisal attacks between the warring parties.

Author Biography

Abdullahi Lawal DANGIWA

Department of Sociology,

Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State

abdullahidangiwa@gmail.com

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Effects of Real Exchange Rate and Total Debt Stock on General Price Level in Nigeria

Abu Maji, Iortyer A. Dominic

Keywords: Exchange rate, debt profile, IMF, price, monetary, econometrics

Abstract

Over the years, exchange rate and debt profile have been critical challenges to the Nigerian economy. In attempts to address these challenges, successive Nigerian governments have formulated and implemented unsuccessful policies to tackle these challenges. Regrettably, Nigeria has consecutively witnessed exchange rate depreciation which results to increase in general price level. Immediate reactions by governments and monetary authorities’ have always been the pegging of the real exchange rate with the aim of inducing economic growth and development; thereby reducing general price levels. Employing an econometric model of Error Correction Mechanism (ECM), this study examines the effects of real exchange rate and debt stock on general price in Nigeria. Findings were consistent with apriori expectation as the regressors (real exchange rate debt stock and imports) have positive effects on general price level and a fast speed of adjustment to equilibrium restoration. The study thus concludes that real exchange rate, debt stock and imports can trigger increase in general price level. Consequently, the study recommends deliberate exchange rate measures as well as debt control measures for enhanced stability in the general price level in Nigeria.

Author Biography

Abu Maji

Department of Economics,

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

abu.maji@yahoo.com

Iortyer A. Dominic

Department of Economics,

Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

iortyerdominic@gmail.com

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Mapping of Social Lives of Waste Electronics (E-Waste) in Nigeria’s Second-Hand Commodity Space

A. A. Akintunde

Keywords: Second-hand, ‘born-again’, sociography, tokunbo, social action

Abstract

In explaining used-objects’ materiality, emphases have always been on abjection and terminality of these objects, especially as used-objects such as used-electronics are often classified as e-wastes, thereby denying their biographies and possible life experiences when discarded by initial users. This paper attempts to provide a sociography of usedobjects in Ngeria with a focus on how the materiality of these usedobjects is socially constructed. Using the notion of sociography, the paper examines the subjective and empirical value of used electronics within the context of reuse and social relations of second-hand culture of consumption and merchandise in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings indicate that Nigerian e-wastes are symbolically “born again” within three basic sociographies identified as commodity sociography, fabricate sociography and the regenerate sociography. These illustrate the materiality of West-used, non-functioning and discarded electronics voyage from meanings of abjection and materially terminal lifespans in the West are transformed into symbolic indeterminate lifetimes after importation into Nigeria. The three sociographies show that there is reinvention of waste into tradable goods. In this sense, used objects in Nigerian second-hand commodity space undergo a transition from abjection and debasement, into valuable biographies that make these used-objects not to be seen and treated as waste any more. The paper concludes that there is a shift from ‘lifespan’ to socially constructed ‘lifetime’ dimensions of used objects in the Nigerian second-hand commodity space. Thus, the paper urges re-thinking of e-waste policies in Nigeria that are currently rooted in material abjection (toxicology) and finitude (obsolescence); to situate e-waste policy design within the direction of symbolic significance by social actors.

Author Biography

A. A. Akintunde

Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

abel.akintunde@bowen.edu.ng; abelonhigh@gmail.com

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Dynamics of Property Crime Victimisation Reporting in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria

Abubakar Ahmadu, Onyegbulem Emeka Valentine

Keywords: Property crime, police, report, victimization, crime victims

Abstract

It is well acknowledged that the degree of offences determines victims’ decision to report criminal victimization in any society. Criminal victimisation has significant impact on the victim as well as the society at large, because crime victims suffer several loss, injuries and death in most cases. Therefore, the need to report crime victimization to appropriate authorities cannot be over emphasised. In the light of the above, this study examines psychosocial and economic factors affecting the act of reporting property crime victimization to police in Wukari, Taraba State. The study interrogated the psychosocial and economic factors affecting the act of reporting property crime victimization to the police. This was necessitated by the seeming gap in previous study which focused on the predisposing factors of property crime and the commonest property crime perpetuated in Wukari. The survey research design was adopted. Closed-ended questionnaires were administered to three hundred and seventy one (371) respondents. Data were analyzed using relevant statistical tools which include simple frequency, mean ratings, and linear regression. The study found that most cases of property crime victimization were not reported to the police and that psychosocial and economic factors significantly influence victims of property crime to report to the police. Economic cost of reporting and victims’ attitude of seeing their victimization as a divine manifestation contributed significantly to discouraging them from reporting to the police. The study recommends that there is the need for crime victims to report cases of victimisation to appropriate authorities.

Authors Biographies

Abubakar Ahmadu

Department of Sociology, Federal University

Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

ahmaduabubakar85@gmail.com

Onyegbulem Emeka Valentine

Department of Sociology, Federal University Lafia

onyegbulememeka750@gmail.com

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Influence of Social Media on Electioneering Processes during the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

Abubakar Salihu, Aliyu Ishaq Abdullahi

Keywords: Democracy, social media, elections, technological determinism, fake news

Abstract

The advent of the social media in recent times has dramatically transformed the way information is created, disseminated, distributed and consumed. In an age where information equates power, diversity of opinions has greatly influenced the evolution of creative problem solving skills and ensured more equitable outcomes that have resulted to good governance and democratic consolidation across human society. In Nigeria, the social media played an influential role during the 2015 general elections. Relying on a systematic review of secondary sources, this paper through the lens of technological determinism theory examines how the social media altered social structures and cultural values during the 2015 electioneering period within the Nigerian society. Major findings established that the social media altered the meaning of geographic distance within the Nigerian society during the 2015 general elections in the country. Altogether, electioneering processes were altered in manners that they allowed a huge increase in the volume of communication flow; thereby increasing the speed of communication and also providing opportunities for interactive communication in domains that were previously difficult to overlap and interconnect. The paper’s conclusion affirms the weak or non-existence of social media regulations in Nigeria. Hence, the paper recommends the review of media laws in Nigeria in order to address absurdities in form of fake news and cyber bullying associated with the social media including Facebook, blogging and Twitter, during periods of general elections in Nigeria.

Author Biography

Abubakar Salihu

Aliyu Ishaq Abdullahi

Department of Public Administration

Faculty of Management Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

get2abusalihu@gmail.com & aliyuishaqabdullahi012@gmail.com

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Constraints of Family Planning within Marriages in Delta State, Nigeria

Ralph-Imoniruwe Elo-Ghene Belin, Ogege S. O.

Keywords: Family planning, consent, spouse approval, girl-child, contraceptives

Abstract

The introduction of family planning methods has not been able to realise the goal of tackling fertility rate and infant and maternal mortality which are high in the African continent, including Nigeria. Several socio-cultural factors have been put forward as responsible for this condition; thus, this paper examines constraints to the utilization of family planning methods among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. The diffusion of innovations theory forms the theoretical framework for this study. The cross sectional research design, involving 399 respondents was employed to obtain data regarding the uptake of family planning methods among married persons across the senatorial districts of Delta State. Major results of the study confirmed that early girl child marriage and male spouse dominance as decision makers in the home affect the use of family planning methods in Delta State, Nigeria. The study recommends that early girl child marriage and obtaining of male spouse consent for family planning can be achieved when custodians of traditions and customs are used to communicate the gains of family planning and ills of early girl child marriage in communities of Delta State, Nigeria.

Author Biography

Ralph-Imoniruwe, Elo-Ghene Belin

belinralph30@gmail.com

Ogege, S. O. (Ph.D)

Professor of Sociology Department,

Delta State University, Abraka

ogegesam@gmail.com

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Political Implications of Xenophobia on Nigeria-South Africa Relations

Garba Mohammed (University of Maiduguri)

Keywords: Xenophobic Attack, Diplomatic, Liberation Struggle, Xenophobia, Foreigners

Abstract

The paper examines implications of xenophobic attacks on economic and social relations with reference to Nigeria-South Africa relations. The objective of this paper is to identify the implications of xenophobic attacks on Nigeria-South Africa diplomatic and economic relations. The paper reviewed secondary data which include books, journals, newspapers and internet sources. Major findings reveal that the Nigerian government has responded in several ways to express displeasure over xenophobic attacks on its citizens in South Africa, which include summoning of the South African Ambassador; ordinary Nigerian citizens have also resorted to use social media to call on Nigerian government to boycott South African companies. The paper concludes that xenophobic attacks have affected the economic and diplomatic relations of South Africa with Nigeria and other African countries. Consequently, South Africa fears retaliatory threats from citizens of other African countries, including Nigeria. The paper recommends that the Nigerian government should fight systemic corruption which is largely the cause of poverty and the high unemployment rate in the country and that have made Nigerians move to South Africa to be killed in a manner that is shameful.

Author Biography

Garba Mohammed (Ph.D)

Department of Political Science

University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

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