info@fuwjss.com
Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Internet Penetration And Cybercrime Attack In Abia State, Nigeria

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Alu Alfred Ede, Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke, Samuel Kalu Obasi

Keywords: Internet, cybercrime attack, online account, ICT gadgets, social media

Abstract

Arguments persist to canvass that a person could be a victim of cybercrime attack if even the person does not have access to the internet. However, prevailing arguments canvassed a correlation between increased internet penetration and increased cybercrime attacks. Thus, this study examines the relationship between internet penetration and cybercrime attacks in Abia State, Nigeria. Data for this study emerged through the administration of questionnaire to 1104 respondents between the ages of 20 years and 70 years in Abia State, Nigeria. The study’s results confirmed that smart phone (61%) and computer (33%) were the most common ICT gadgets owned by respondents. Also, on average, respondents who own smart phone and other gadgets tend to experience more cyberattacks (M = 2.53, S.D = 1.63) than those who own only smart phones (M = 2.17, S.D = 1.41), t(923) = 3.453, p < .05, r = .11. Facebook (24%) and WhatsApp (23%) were the most commonly operated online accounts; followed by email (19%), Instagram (11%), and Internet banking (10.8%). That about 4 in every 5 respondents operated more than one online account. Respondents who operated/owned more than one accounts are more vulnerable to cyber security attacks (M = 2.43) than those operated only one account (M = 2.16) and those who operated no account at all (M = 2. 03), f(923) = 2.889, p = .05, r = .10. The study

Author Biography

Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor

Peace & Conflict Studies Unit, School of General Studies

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

Abia State, Nigeria

Alu Alfred Ede

Peace & Conflict Studies Unit, School of General Studies

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Abia State, Nigeria

Chibuike Ndubuisi Nwoke

Department of Sociology & Anthropology

The Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Samuel Kalu Obasi

Social Science Unit, School of General Studies

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Corresponding author: chibuike.nwoke@unn.edu.ng

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Interrogating Primordialism And Modernism In Nationalism

Edita Muhammad Nma

Keywords: Primordialism, modernist, nationalism, ethnic conflicts, social justice

Abstract

This paper comparatively analyzed two competing theoretical assumptions in the field of nationalism: primordialism and modernist thoughts of nationalism. Primordialism simply argued that nations and national identities are naturally fixed and given, and that ethnic groups are often attributed by share consciousness, belongingness and sometime sentimental in order to achieve group’s interest and aspiration. In contrast, modernists argue that the rise of nations and national identities are product of historical revolution which nations undergo over the years. Historical revolution to modernists is rooted in industrialization and globalization. In interrogating these thoughts of nationalism, the paper’s findings reiterate that both industrialization and globalization have continued to form basis for global interconnectedness without eroding nationalist movements. Thus, nationalist struggles have remained the permanent features of both national and international societies over the years. The paper concludes that primordialist hostilities by ethnic groups toward each other form the prime factor for ethnic conflict in moder society. Likewise, modernists’ wind of globalization and economic disparities among nations is responsible for group’s conflicts in modern society. The paper recommends that social justice, negotiation, and federalism should be advocated as viable instruments for resolving ethnic

conflicts in modern society.

Author Biography

Edita Muhammad Nma

Department of Political Science

Ibrahim Badamasi babangida University,

Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

medita@ibbu.edu.ng, editanma1006@gmail.com

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COVID-19 Lockdown And Unprofessional Conducts Of Security Agents In Nigeria

Michael Christopher Eraye, Zumve Samuel Iornienge

Key words: COVID-19, lockdown, professionalism, security agents, community spread

Abstract

The paper explores the nexus between COVID-19 lockdown and the conduct of security agents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The activities of security operatives in enforcing lockdown restriction during the COVID-19 lockdown uncovered unprofessional conducts exhibited against civilians by the Police and Military deployed to enforce the lockdown restrictions. Through content-analysis of secondary data anchored on Routine Activity Theory, this paper discusses how conducts of security agents during the COVID-19 lockdown vitiate from constitutional provisions of security agents to protect citizens and ensure law and order in the country. The study’s results confirmed that extrajudicial killings, extortion of money from motorists, unwarranted and arbitrary arrest, torture of civilians and harassment were some of the unprofessional conducts exhibited by security agents against civilians during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. The paper concludes that these unprofessional conducts of the security agents, rather than inhibit, facilitate the spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper recommends that security agents should be periodically retrained especially on how to enforce restrictions of government during periods of emergencies, while also adhering to the ethics of their profession. Unprofessional conduct of security agents must be resisted vehemently and culprits be made to face the full weight of the law; and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) must continue to speak up against all the negative activities of security operatives in the course of discharging their constitutional responsibilities.

Author Biography

MICHAEL, Christopher Eraye

Department of Sociology

Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

ZUMVE, Samuel Iornienge

Department of Sociology

Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

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Healthcare Access And Outcomes In Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Dogo Simeon, Victor Ishaya

Keywords: Healthcare, rural, health outcomes, Zangon Kataf, poverty

Abstract

This study examines healthcare access and outcomes in Afana community of Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed health challenges faced by rural communities in Kaduna State, identifying factors contributing to limited healthcare access and disparities in rural communities and health outcomes in the area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design involving 97 respondents who responded to a structured questionnaire. Respondents for the study were selected through a simple random sampling technique. Data collected in the study were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques in the form of frequency counts and percentages; and data were presented in tables and charts. The study’s results show that the impact of socioeconomic disparities on healthcare access in rural communities of Kaduna State has significant burden with limited progress in health outcomes within rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study concludes that income level and poverty are the basic socioeconomic factors having the greatest impact on healthcare access and outcomes in rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that policymakers in Kaduna State should prioritize rural healthcare in the State and allocate adequate funding for primary healthcare infrastructural development. Also, there is need for the upgrade of existing primary healthcare infrastructure and the availability of essential medical equipment and technology in order to enhance the quality and accessibility of healthcare services in rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Author Biography

Dogo Simeon

Geography Department

Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya,

Kaduna, Nigeria

simeondogo@gmail.com

Victor Ishaya

Geography Department

Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya,

Kaduna, Nigeria

sirvkaku@gmail.com

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Complications Of Social Distancing And COVID-19 Pandemic In Nigeria

Frank Ikponmwosa, Thaddeus T. Ityonzughul

Keywords: Social structure, COVID-19; Pandemic; Distancing; Post-COVID

Abstract

The coronavirus popularly referred to as COVID-19 pandemic which broke out in 2019 took the world by storm and altered human social and economic life in both the advanced and developing nations. At its outbreak, people had to grapple with the reality of the social and economic changes which it ushered. In explicating these changes, this paper interrogates the

implications of social distancing and COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The paper specifically examines how framings of social distancing complicated and confused government policies and social interactions at abating the spread of the disease in Nigeria. Evidence for the paper emerged through primary and secondary sources and the social distance theory forms the

theoretical lens through which analyses in this paper were based. Findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the pathetic nature of the Nigerian healthcare system. Also, social distancing restriction imposed by the respective state governments and the federal government of Nigeria as a means of curbing the spread of the virus created food crisis as there was the absence of any meaningful palliative from the government. The paper concludes that the Nigerian State would still be negatively impacted in future pandemics except social structures within the Nigerian society are strengthened to withstand shocks of uncertainties and emergencies.

Author Biography

Frank Ikponmwosa

Department of History and International Studies

University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

frank.ikponmwosa@uniben.edu

Thaddeus T. Ityonzughul

Department of International Studies and Diplomacy

Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria.

ityonzughult@gmail.com

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Impact Of Covid-19 Lock Down On Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Keffi Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Abuh Hassan Bashiru

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Lockdown, Small Scale Enterprises,

Performance

Abstract

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic brought about lockdowns that led to the restriction of movements, market closure, social distancing, among others. Consequently, these restrictions and controls of movement have particularly affected Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. To this end, this study examines the impact of the coronavirus pandemic lockdown on traders, general services and manufacturing businesses in Keffi metropolis of Nasarawa State. The study used a sample comprising of 234 SMEs that are involved in retail traders and manufacturing services ranging from paints and soap production, consumables as well as baking businesses. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and interview. Social ecology theory was utilized as the theoretical framework of analysis. The investigation revealed that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on small and medium scale enterprises manifest in low turnout of customers, low income, increase in the cost of goods and services, sales fluctuations, insufficient supply of goods, low demand of goods and services and there was no reduction in the cost/price of goods and services. The study concludes that the impact of COVID-19 lockdown in Keffi metropolis in Nasarawa State, Nigeria is severe as some SMEs could not survive the pandemic lockdown. Thus, the study recommends that SMEs in Keffi metropolis and Nasarawa State in general could improve on their performance by adopting digital marketing to minimize the negative effect of future lockdowns.

Author Biography

Abuh Hassan Bashiru

Department of Political Science

Baba-Ahmed University, Sharada, Kano State

bash4greatness@gmail.com

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Analyzing Institutional Quality And Economic Growth In Sub-saharan Africa Using System Generalised Method Of Moments (SGMM)

Ogu Musa Akwe, Suleiman Salusi Maigari, Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Keywords: Economic growth, Gross capital formation, Institutional quality,

Trade Openness

Abstract

Institutional quality is considered to be an important factor in enhancing economic growth of a country. This study investigates the impact of institutional quality on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa using the System Generalized Method of Moments estimation method to a

dynamic panel data for 40 Sub-Saharan Africa countries spanning from 2006-2020. The results of the System Generalized Method of Moments indicate that institutional quality has a significant and positive impact on the economic growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. The results

further revealed that gross capital formation and population have significant and positive effect on economic growth in the region. The study concludes that institutional quality enhances economic growth of Sub-Saharan African countries. The study recommends that governments of the region should encourage independence of institutions to promote economic growth in the region.

Author Biography

Ogu, Musa Akwe

Department of Social Science,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria

Suleiman Salusi Maigari

Department of Economics

Umar Musa Yar’Adua University, Katsina, Nigeria

Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Department of Economics

Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT), Kaduna, Nigeria

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Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission And Trust-Building In Implementing The International Court Of Justice Judgement

Umar Abdullahi, Shuaibu Umar Abdul, Mohammed Bello Baban’umma, Mohammed Bello Baban'umma

Keywords: ICJ, Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission, Bakassi Peninsula, trust

Abstract

This study seeks to examine the role of Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission in the promotion of confidence building measures between communities affected by International Court of Justice (ICJ) Judgement of 10th October, 2002, involving Cameroon and Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed how the Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission contributed in re-establishing a degree of trust between the people and the governments of Nigeria and Cameroon. The study adopted the survey research design which entails the collection of data from a cross section of the population. The theoretical framework that guided analyses is the neo-liberal institutionalism

theory. The study’s results showed that the implementation of the ICJ judgment by the Mixed Commission has contributed in the promotion of peace between Cameroon and Nigeria as both parties have shown commitment to renounce the use of force in their bilateral relations and pursue peaceful ways for the settlement of their boundary differences. The study concludes that the activities of the Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission are promoting trust and enabling the provision of basic social amenities such as education and health facilities in the affected Cameroon-Nigeria international border communities. The study recommends that there is the need for the participation of key stakeholders particularly, leaders of the affected populations from both sides in the activities of the Mixed Commission.

Author Biography

UMAR Abdullahi

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

abdullahiumar43@gmail.com

SHUAIBU Umar Abdul

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

altukud2015@gmail.com

MOHAMMED Bello Baban’umma

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi

Mohammed Bello Baban'umma

Department of Political Science,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Psychological Coping Strategies Of Orphans In Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Bawa Precious Tani, Ubi Mary Otanwa, Dabo Yusuf

Keywords: Orphans, depression, learning disorder, Makarfi, Autonomy, farming

Abstract

In recent years, orphan populations have increased due to rising rates of terrorism, the HIV and AIDS pandemic, accidents, banditry, diseases, and other preventable causes of death. These have negatively impacted the lives of many orphans; as they are faced with lots of challenges leave them helpless. The paper investigates the coping strategies of orphans in Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Through a systematic sampling procedure, the study sample consists of 370 respondents in five wards of Makarfi Local Government Area. One focus group discussion (FGD) was held in each of the five selected wards. Data analysis consists of descriptive statistics involving chi-square and principal component analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 25). The study results and findings established that autonomy, environment mastery, and personal growth are the major factors that affect orphans

psychologically. Orphans with secondary school education have the highest (0.042) psychological well-being, while orphans without any form of education have the lowest (-0.08) psychological well-being. The study concludes that the prevailing coping strategies mostly adopted by orphans in Makarfi Local Government Area are farming (46.8%) and peer relationships (34.8%). The study recommends that governments at all levels should integrate orphans into the National Health Insurance Scheme to enable them to access healthcare with ease and at a lesser cost.

Author Biography

Bawa Precious Tani*

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management,

Federal University Wukari Taraba State, Nigeria

Ubi Mary Otanwa

Department of Geography,

Federal University, Dutsin-Ma Katsina State, Nigeria

Dabo Yusuf

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding author Email: precious@fuwukari.edu.ng

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Leadership Style And Employees’ Performance In Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) Within Gombe State, Nigeria

Aondoaver Cornelius Peke, Ahmed Aliyu Palladan

Keywords: Leadership, decision-making, employee performance, NGOs,

Gombe

Abstract

Employees of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) often work in very risky conditions. The varying conditions require their employees to display different skills in dealing with those they serve. In this way, leaders in non-governmental organization need to display their full leadership skills in order to motivate their employees to attain optimal level of performance. Thus, this study investigates the effects of leadership styles on employee performance at some selected NGOs in Gombe State. A survey research design was used where data was sourced through 112 questionnaire using five points Likert scale and was administered to the respondents. The analysis of the participants’ responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 which generated the response rates, variances, standard errors, R-square statistics, correlation, analyses of variance and t-statistics. The study results reveal that autocratic and laissez faire leadership styles have no significance effect on employee performance in non-governmental organization in Gombe State. While democratic leadership style has significance effect on employee performance in non-governmental organization in Gombe State. The study

concludes that the democratic style of leadership which gives NGO employees a certain freedom and involves them in decision-making motivates NGO employees to more productivity in Gombe State, Nigeria. The study recommends that heads of non-governmental organizations

should encourage more practice of democratic leadership style; as democratic leadership style ensures a well-organized and stable group.

Author Biography

Aondoaver Cornelius Peke

National Malaria Elimination Programme,

Abuja, Nigeria

aondoaver@gmail.com

Ahmed Aliyu Palladan

School of Business, FCET Gombe, Nigeria

aapalladan@live.com

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Nigeria’s 2023 Presidential Election And Negations Of The 2022 Electoral Act

Ochim Fidelis Ikaade, Nebeife Chigozie Joseph, Chinwuba Michael Emeka

Keywords: Electoral Act, BVAS, IReV, INEC, democracy

Abstract

Evidences prevail to contend that electoral administration play a vital role in ensuring the fairness, transparency and legitimacy of elections in democratic societies. The high premium placed on electoral administration is due to its capacity to engender electoral integrity which is foundational to the entrenchment of a credible electoral process. In this regard, this paper examines electoral administration and the electoral process of the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper argues that the Nigerian Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting general elections, introduced the use of Bimodal Voter Accreditation System (BVAS) for the 2023 elections in order to curb electoral malpractices experienced in previous elections. However, the failure of INEC to stick to its own guidelines as it failed to post the results of the 2023 presidential election from the polling units on the INEC Result Viewing Portal (IReV) tends to undermine the integrity of the electoral process in the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper’s findings established negation of the Electoral Act by INEC in the Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election. The paper concludes that negation of the Electoral Act by INEC is a worrisome trajectory that has detrimental impacts on the quality of Nigerian electoral process. The paper recommends that there is need for increased transparency and accountability by INEC, as well as better collaboration between INEC and civil society organizations in order to ensure credible electoral process that will reflect the will of the Nigerian people.

Author Biography

Ochim, Fidelis Ikaade

Department of Political Science,

Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

e-mail:ochimfidelis@yahoo.com

Nebeife, Chigozie Joseph

Department of Political Science,

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State

e-mail:cjnebeife@gmail.com

Chinwuba Michael Emeka

Federal university Wukari Taraba State

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Impact Of Menu Design On Customers’ Satisfaction In Selected Hotels In Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria

Clement Ukayi Anake, Nyikyaa Wilfred Terseer

Key words: Hotel, Customer, Satisfaction, Menu, Hospitality

Abstract

Menu design has shown potential in influencing hotel customers’ satisfaction and restaurant customers’ food choice. In ascertaining this influence, this study assesses the impact of menu design on customers’ satisfaction in hotels within Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. The

gaze motion theory was adopted as the theoretical framework for the study. The study’s sample consists of one hundred and sixty-two (162) respondents who were selected through the use simple random sampling. The structured questionnaire and indepth interview form the main sources of data collection in the study. The collated data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 23). Data analysis involved descriptive statistical tools including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. The study results and findings revealed that menu design has positive impact on customers’ satisfaction in hotels within

Makurdi metropolis. The results and findings also revealed that menu design assist customers in making more informed choices and customers perceived the menu in hotels under study to be highly attractive and visually appealing. The study recommends that hospitality professionals

should pay more attention to menu design attributes by improving on their menus in order to be competitive in the industry as they are major marketing tools in the hotel and restaurant industry.

Author Biography

Clement Ukayi Anake

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State Nigeria

anaclem@yahoo.com

Nyikyaa Wilfred Terseer

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State Nigeria

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Moderating Effect Of Money Supply On Inflation Rate And Economic Growth In Nigeria (1981-2021)

Ahmadu Ezekiel, Alfred Cyprain Bognet, Darius Akan Yashim, Clement Chindo Rebin

Keywords: Growth, Inflation, Money, Supply

Abstract

Economically, a rise in money supply causes inflation which eventually leads to a decline in economic growth. In this way, there is need for the moderation of money supply in an economy, as this has impact on inflation rate and economic growth in a given country. Using the

Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model, this study investigates the moderating effect of money supply on the relationship between inflation rate and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981 to 2021. The results of the interaction model revealed that money supply has significant effect on the relationship between inflation rate and economic growth in Nigeria both in the short run and long run. Specifically, the results showed that with an increase in money supply, inflation rate significantly reduced economic growth in Nigeria. The results of the marginal effect also showed that at maximum level of money supply in Nigeria, inflation rate significantly reduced economic growth in the country. However, at average and minimum level of money supply, inflation rate had insignificant negative impact on economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981 to 2021. Based on the results, the study recommends that government should pay closer attention to the high rate of inflation in the economy and take swift action to lower it by reducing the amount of money in circulation. In order to accomplish this, the relevant government agencies should work to stop money leaks, theft, and diversion.

Author Biography

Ahmadu, Ezekiel

Economics Department,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

ezekielahmadu@gmail.com

Alfred Cyprain Bognet

Kaduna State Planning and Budget Commission

alfredbognet7@gmail.com

Darius Akan Yashim

Department of Economics, Kaduna State University

darius.yashim@kasu.edu.ng

Clement Chindo Rebin

Kaduna State Planning and Budget Commission

klementrebin@gmail.com

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Income Poverty Reduction Through N-Power Scheme In Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Fred Osahon Okunmahie, Abel Enoguanmwonsa Ovenseri

Keywords: N-Power, Scheme, Poverty, Income, Ikpoba Okha

Abstract

This study examines how the N-Power scheme has worked to reduce income poverty among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. The study utilized the empowerment theory as the framework of analysis. The population of the study comprises NPower enrollees who served in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State. The study’s sample consists of three hundred and thirty respondents who responded to the study’s questionnaire. The study’s major results revealed that the N-Teach component of the N-Power scheme had a strong positive impact on income poverty reduction among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. The study concludes that the N-Teach component of the NPower scheme largely contributed to the reduction of income poverty among participants in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State. Consequently, the study recommends that successive governments in Nigeria should consolidate and deepen the N-Power scheme so that more unemployed Nigerians can benefit from the scheme.

Author Biography

Fred Osahon Okunmahie
Department of Political Science and Public Administration
Edo State University, Uzairue, Edo State, Nigeria
fred.okunmahie@gmail.com
Abel Enoguanmwonsa Ovenseri
Department of Public Administration
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
abelovenseri@gmail.com

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Indigenous Cultural Diplomacy for Conflict Resolution in Abia State, Nigeria

Samuel Musa Gana

Keywords: Cultural diplomacy, sustainable development, conflict resolution, insecurity

Abstract 

This paper analyzes the impact of utilizing indigenous cultural diplomacy as a tool for conflict resolution in Abia State, Nigeria. In recent times, there have been devastating conflicts in south-east Nigeria, including Abia State, where there is heighten insecurity. This paper therefore examines how indigenous cultural diplomacy is appropriated as an active change agent and neutralizer that proffer adequate solutions in conflictual contexts. The paper reviewed secondary data sources. The findings of the paper established that the essence of dispute settlement and conflict resolution in traditional Abia societies includes the removal of the root-cause of the conflict, reconciliation of the conflicting parties, preserving and ensuring harmony, and bringing about a win-win situation to the conflicting parties. The paper concludes that indigenous conflict resolution systems in Abia State are process-oriented, victim-centred and they apply persuasive and reintegrative principles in adjudicating disputes. The paper therefore recommends that conflict resolution strategies for sustainable development in Nigeria should always seek to get into the root causes of conflicts.

Author Biography 

Samuel Musa Gana

Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution

Plot 496 Abogo Largema Str., Central Business District,

Federal Capital Territory, Abuja- Nigeria

musasara81@gmail.com

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A Sociological Analysis of Domestic Violence and Socio-Economic Development in Kogi State, Nigeria

Dangana-Onuche Gloria Ojonoka, Leke Jefrey Orseer

Keywords: Domestic violence, gender, women, income, social inequailities

Abstract 

In Africa, women do experience various forms of social injustices and domestic violence appears dominant. Regrettably, the menance of domestic violence against women in Nigeria had not been given much attention. Thus, this study provides a sociological explanation to the relationship between domestic violence and socio-economic development in Kogi State, Nigeria. This study involves primary data wherein a sample of 418 married men and women were randomly selected as respondents who responded to a structured questionnaire; and 20 persons were interviewed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings of the study showed that majority (92.8%) of respondents have in one way or the other experienced one form of domestic violence. Again, about (70.2%) of the respondents indicated that belief in patriarchy, lack of finance, influence of childhood abuse, forced sex and hot temper contribute greatly to the incidence of domestic violence against women in Kogi State, Nigeria. Consequently, the impacts of domestic violence on women’s socio-economic development in Kogi State manifest in decreased productivity, loss of source of income, and poor physical and mental status. The study concludes that the lack of effective gender policies and corruption on the parts of law enforcement officers in Kogi State form the basis for persistent domestic violence in Kogi State. Thus, the study recommends that more efforts should be made by the Kogi State Government and non-governmental organizations in the state to strengthen laws and protection against domestic violence in the Kogi State.

Author Biography 

Dangana-Onuche Gloria Ojonoka

Sociology Department,

Prince Abubakar Audu University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

Dangana.og@ksu.edu.ng

Leke Jefrey Orseer

Sociology Department,

Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State

jeffphem@gmail.com

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Proliferation of Unauthorized Weapons and State Failure in Nigeria

ANAHUM Uriah Pheeyamila, AGBOR Anthony Odo, EMMANUEL Jikini

Keywords: Insecurity, unauthorized weapon, banditry, patrortism, terrorism

Abstract 

This study seeks to explain the proliferation of unauthorized weapons and state failure in Nigeria. In recent years, there have been the unprecedented flows of unauthorized weapons into Nigeria and this arguably has given rise to grave security concerns in the country. Through a systematic review of literature involving journal articles, text-books, newspapers and white paper reports on the proliferation of unauthorized weapons in Nigeria, this study examines the failure of state institutions in regulating the proliferation of weapons in Nigeria and its imacts on state-building in Nigeria. Analyses of the study are rooted in assumptions of the failed state theory. Major findings revealed that the proliferation of unauthorized weapons in Nigeria critically exacerbate the humanitarian crisis bedeviling Nigeria and the country’s efforst to state-building. The study concludes that the proliferation of unauthorized weapons accounts for the unabated destruction of lives and property in Nigeria, thereby obfuscating the consolidation of democratic processes and institutions in the country. The study recommends that Nigerian borders should be effectively manned by relevant security agencies, and patriotism should be appropriately rewarded, celebrated and encouraged in the country.

Author Biography 

ANAHUM Uriah Pheeyamila

AGBOR Anthony Odo

EMMANUEL Jikini

Department of Sociology,

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

uriapheel@gmail.com

tajdgood@gmail.com

jikiniemmanuel2019@gmail.com

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Effective Political Leadership and Service Delivery in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Government Areas, Niger State, Nigeria

MOHAMMED Idris Danjuma, LAWAL Yusuf Birisan, SALAHU Olayinka Moshood

Keyswords: Leadership, strategic planning, service delivery, managerial skills

Abstract 

Globally, service delivery is crucial in improving human lives and a formidable measure of assessing the performance of any leadership or government. In the past decades, several efforts have been put in place by the Niger State Government in strengthening capacity to promote service delivery at both the State and Local Government levels. However, in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Government Areas of Niger State, empirical evidences showed low strategic planning experience and lack of managerial skills in the Councils. Thus, this study assesses the impact of political leadership on service delivery in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Government Areas, Niger State. The study depended on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential techniques. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. The study’s results established that leader’s strategic planning experience significantly affected service delivery in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Government Areas. The study also affirmed that managerial skills among the leaders affected service delivery in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Government Areas. The study then recommends that there is need to strengthen strategic planning experience among present and future leaders in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Governments for better result (efficient service delivery) in order to be fair and responsive to public needs and demands. More so, political leaders should be trained and motivated to apply the skills of management for effective service delivery in Chanchaga and Lapai Local Governments.

Author Biography

MOHAMMED Idris Danjuma

LAWAL Yusuf Birisan

SALAHU Olayinka Moshood

Department of Politics and Governance

Kwara State University Malete Kwara State Nigeria mohammed.idris@kwasu.edu.ng

danjuma1986@gmail.com

moshoodsalahu@gmail.com

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Complicating Role of Bandits Informants in the Fight Against Banditry in Zamfara State, Nigeria

Gerald E. Ezirim, Naziru Haruna, Fada Doupere Paul, Stanley Terkumbur Humbe

Keywords: Insecurity, bandits, informants, security, arms

Abstract 

The security forces and several willing individuals are strategizing to combat the menace of armed bandits in Zamfara State, Nigeria. However, some criminally-minded individuals in the state are crippling the efforts by providing information and other logistics to armed bandits. This development is a threat to national security and the effort to combat banditry in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Thus, this study investigates the role play by bandits-informants in the persistence of banditry in Zamfara State, Nigeria. The study used survey and documentary method of data collection and quantitative data were analyzed using simple descriptive techniques, while qualitative data were content analyzed. The study adopted the queer ladder theory (QLT) that holds that organized crime is an instrument for social climbing or socio-economic advancement. The study findings indicate that bandits-informants in Zamfara State, Nigeria supply information on security raids, attacks or counter attacks, food items, fuel, sale of stolen properties, arms and ammunitions supply, information revealing wealthy targets. The paper concludes that activities of bandits-informants are complicating ongoing efforts to combat banditary in Zamfara State, Nigeria. The paper recommends that traditional leaders, religious leaders, NGOs, members of the press and willing individuals should embark on awareness creation within communities in the State on the danger of being informants to bandits.

Author Biography 

Gerald E. Ezirim, Ph.D.

Department of Political Science

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

ezirim@unn.edu,ng

Naziru Haruna

Department of Political Science,

Gombe State University, Gombe

naziruharunagis@gmail.com

Fada Doupere Paul

Department of Political Science,

Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State

kingdoupez83@gmail.com

Stanley Terkumbur Humbe

Department of Political Science,

University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State - Nigeria

stanleyhumbe@gmail.com

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Development and Peace Education in a Militarized Democracy

Godwin Etta Odok

Keywords: Culture of peace, violence, kin networks, democracy, security, education

Abstract 

Peace education pertinently seeks to instill values, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviours that ensure harmony with oneself, others and the natural environment. In this way, peace education is critical in creating a democratic culture that prevents violence and ensures development within society. Across the different regions of Nigeria, there are recurrences of extreme violence with the rise of ethnic militia groups that enjoy the support of kinfolks. Drawing from interviewed-based case studies in Benue, Taraba, and Katsina States, Nigeria, this paper discusses failures of national security strategies in prioritizing peace-building within contexts of local participation and indigenous systems of power and development. Findings culminate to establish that the absence of indigenous peace-building priorities in Nigeria’s national security and development strategies reinforce violent worldviews and orientations in Nigerian politics and development efforts. Consequently, peace education remains the preferable option for mobilizing for effective security and peace-building in Nigeria’s post-1999 democracy as peace education holds potentials in entrenching a peace-based worldview and culture. Thus, peace education contents and development planning in a democratic Nigeria should integrate and pay equal attention to all aspects and dimensions of the moral, psychological, social, economic, political and transcendent spiritual foundations of development and peace without devaluing, ignoring local experiences of peace and development.

Author Biography 

Godwin Etta Odok

Department of Sociology

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

godwinodok2000@yahoo.com

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Policy Intentions of Currency Swap in Nigeria

Ibrahim Salihu Kombo

Keywords: Corruption, currency, policy, economy, naira

Abstract 

Recently, the Nigerian Federal Government introduced new denominations of #200, #500 and #1000 notes into circulation. This introduction stirred large-scale uncertainities within the political, social and economic spheres in manners that the policy intentions of this currency swap appear speculative among Nigerians. Through a systematic review of secondary data sources, this paper examines the primary intents of the currency swap policy and how this currency swap aligns with the Federal Government’s fight against corruption and determination to re-structure the nation’s economy. The system theory forms the theoretical lens of this paper. Major findings established that the policy intentions of the currency swap policy focused on fighting corruption in Nigeria. Findings also recognized that fighting corruption in Nigeria is not an easy job, but with sincerity of motives displayed with placing the right people for the job and appropriate legislations made, the currency swap policy can effectively fight corrupt in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the success of the currency swap policy depends on the effectiveness of government mechanisms to efficiently revitalize state institutions in Nigeria to be accountable in their operations. The paper recommends that there should be an adequate articulation and appraisal of policy intents before such policies are roll- out for implementation in Nigeria.

Author Biography 

Ibrahim Salihu Kombo

Department of Political Science,

IBB University Lapai, Niger state

ibrahimsalihukombo@gmail.com.

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Dynamics of Post-Cold War and Changing Global Political Economy

Ikenna Ukpabi Unya, Christopher Ike Uhere, Kelechi Unya Okocha

Keywords: Cold war, global politics, political economy, Soviet Union, isolationism

Abstract 

The erstwhile Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States of America emerged from the Second World War of 1945 as two dominant World’s superpower nations. The Union began a power grab for supremacy in Eastern Europe. The West led by the United States of America began frantically to defend their interests from the threats posed by the communist expansion. This power tussle, in the history of warfare, is referred to as the Cold War, and resulted in most of Eastern Europe coming under the control of the communist Soviet Union. This paper examines the historical origin of the Cold War, highlighting the impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union on the global political economy. The study relied on secondary sources which include books, journal articles and internet materials. The study’s findings indicate that the collapse of the Soviet Union is not the end of the communist regime globally, as China benefited from the collapse in the sense that it has enabled China to modernize and integrate the economic models of the West. The paper concludes that the current Russian and Ukrainian war has linkage to the collapse of the Soviet Union and this is altering geopolitical dynamics across the world with immediate and remote effects on national economies. Consequently, the disintegration of the Soviet Union should teach global political leaders that political and economic reforms should not be dependent on external powers.

Author Biography 

Ikenna Ukpabi Unya, PhD

History Unit, School of General Studies

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State bismarckaik@gmail.com

Christopher Ike Uhere, PhD

Department of Social Science,

Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana Afikpo, Ebonyi State cuhere.unwanapoly@gmail.com

Kelechi Unya Okocha

Social Science Education (Political Science option), Faculty of Education

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nsukka, Enugu State

professorunya@gmail.com

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An Assessment of Morphological Features of Dongol Stream in Kashere Watershed, Gombe State, Nigeria

Songu, G.A., Abu, R.D, Thlakma, S.R. Maikano, E.T.

Keywords: Dongol stream, Morphological features, Kashere Watershed, perimeter

Abstract 

This paper examined the morphological features of Dongol stream in Kashere watershed area to determine their influence on the nearby environment. Data emerged through direct field observation and measurements involving survey equipment such as measuring tape, Global Positioning System, ranging poles and camera. Morphological parameters measured include stream length, depth, width, boulders, pools, riffles, wetted and dry perimeters of the stream. The descriptive statistic (mean) showed variation in the data, why the Pearson’s Product Moment correlation statistic evaluated the relationship between the morphological parameters of the stream. Results of the study show that the mean depth of the Dongol stream is 4.77m and the mean width is 36.48m. The Dongol stream is considered to be moderately deep around Kashere area, with a wide top width. With the increasing width of the stream, this threatens nearby cultivated farmlands thereby leading to loss of reparian vegetation along the stream banks. The stream has a lower mean wetted perimeter (11.96m) than the mean dried perimeter (24.33m). The study concludes that the stream drier part is larger, thereby influencing small amount of water available for usage in the stream for agricultural and domestic purposes. Also, the pools, riffles, sand bars and boulders observed do influenced siltation in the stream, thus impacting negatively on the stream depth and flow pattern of the stream. The study recommends that vegetation should be planted along Dongol river banks to help reduce siltation, stream bank erosion and mass wasting for enhanced stream bank stabilisation and environmental sustainability.

Author Biography

Songu, G.A., 

Abu, R.D, 

Thlakma, S.R. 

Maikano, E.T. 

Department of Geography, 

Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. 

Email of corresponding author: godwinsongu22@gmail.com

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Depression and Turnover Intention as Outcome of Work Stress Among SME’s Sales Representatives in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria

Okpamen Osariemen Kelly, Stephen Simon Anshir, Hemba Tersoo Theophilus

Keywords: Depression, Turnover Intention, Work Stress, Sales Representatives, Jalingo

Abstract 

Depression, major depressive disorder, is a medical illness that negatively affects how a person feels, thinks and acts. It is the feeling of sadness and loss of interest in a formerly enjoyed activity. This study examines the role of work stress as predictor of depression and turnover intention among small and medium-scale enterprises (SME’s) Sales Representatives in Jalingo metropolis. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Samples of 310 participants were selected through convenient sampling techniques comprising of 165 males and 144 females. Three standardized instruments: the Depression scale (CES-D), Workplace Stress Scale (WSS), and Turnover Intention Scale (TIS) were used for data collection. The result shows that work stress is a negatively significant predictor of depression at work among sales represenatatives in Jalingo metropolis. Also, work stress is a positive predictor of intention to leave. The study concludes that work stress if not minimized, can lead to depression of sales representative and hinder them from performing their duties more effective and efficiently. And high level of work stress can lead to contemplation of turnover intention decision among employees working as frontline sales representatives for small and medium scale enterprises in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State, Nigeria.

Author Biography

Okpamen Osariemen Kelly

Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

kellyokpamen@gmail.com

Stephen Simon Anshir

Department of Psychology,

Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

anshirstephen@gmail.com

Hemba Tersoo Theophilus

Department of Psychology,

Benue State University, Makurdi

hembatersoo@gmail.com

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Implications of Irregular Migration on National Security in Nigeria

Jummai Ometere AYENI, Irmiya Thomas USMAN, Manasseh Paul MAICHIKI, Shadrack Terengson DANBABA

Keywords: Ilegal migrants, human security, borders, threats, political will

Abstract 

Nigeria faces severe security threats particularly link to the activities of illegal migrants. These have attracted attention from scholars, policy makers and security analysts. These threats to national security include activities of Boko Haram, as well as incidences of piracy and maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea. This paper discusses irregular migration and its implication on national security in Nigeria. The paper relied on relevant secondary sources of data collection. The securitization theory forms the theoretical framework wherein analyses in this paper occurred. The theory assumes that threats and vulnerabilities can arise in many different areas, military and non- military, but in order to count as security threats, such threats must meet strictly defined criteria that distinguish them from the normal happenings of mere politics. The study’s findings recognized that irregular migrants in Nigeria do cause both national and human insecurity and the Federal Government seldom imposes ad hoc measures through which entry points are blocked and illegal immigrants are expelled from the country. The paper concludes that irregular migration persists in Nigeria because there is no political will to impose adequate security across Nigeria’s international borders; and also, there is the lack of political will to effectively implement the national security strategy. The paper recommends that the Federal Government should securitize the issue of irregular migration beyond the normal happenings of mere politics. Thus, border security threats should be treated as existential threats to both national and human security in Nigeria.

Author Biography

Jummai Ometere AYENI

Department of Political Science and International Studies

Amadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

mmayeni64@gmail.com

Irmiya Thomas USMAN

Department of Political Science and International Studies

Amadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

jerryusman88@gmail.com

Manasseh Paul MAICHIKI

Distance Learning Centre,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria-Nigeria.

maichikimanasseh@gmail.com

Shadrack Terengson DANBABA

Department of Political Science,

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences,

Gombe State University

danbabatereng78@gsu.edu.ng

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Students’ Activism and Institutional Governance in Nigerian Universities

Abdullahi Abiodun Oyekanmi, Adeola Aderayo Adebajo Afeez, Kolawole Shittu

Keywords: Activism, higher institution, unionism, students protest, students’ affairs

Abstract 

Students’ activism and protests have assumed a global dimension due to varying challenges in educational governance within larger political strata of nation-states. This paper interrogates the relationship between students’ activism and institutional governance in Nigerian universities, attempting to explain how this relationship reinforces academic excellence and effective leadership in Nigerian Universities. The study relied on a systematic review of secondary data. The study adopted critical mass theory as its theoretical framework. The study’s findings iterate that students’ activism and protests are products of higher institutional failure and poor leadership within Nigerian Universities. The paper concludes that as long as there is a disconnection between students’ expectations on education and institutional governance, there would always be tension and conflict within the Nigerian University system. Thus, the study recommends for the reconfiguration of students’ affairs units of all tertiary institutions with individuals who are more receptive to students’ psychology, empathy and clear understanding of important nuances around students’ movements, needs and priorities. Also, having past students’ union leaders as Dean and Students’ Affairs Officers will reinforce students’ trust in the tertiary institutions management and offer brightest opportunities to nip any crisis at the bud.

Author Biography

Abdullahi Abiodun Oyekanmi

Adeola Aderayo Adebajo

Department of Political Science,

Tai Solarin University of Education Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria oyekanmiabdullahi655@gmail.com adebajoaa@tasued.edu.ng 

Afeez Kolawole Shittu

Department of Political Science,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, Nigeria shittu.afeez2450@fcesoyo.edu.ng

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Education and Class Stratification in Nigeria

Agwadu Lhebade

Keywords: Educational access, class, exploitation, capitalism, inequality

Abstract 

This paper examines the nexus between education and class stratification in Nigeria through the Marxian theoretical lenses. The paper argues that education is a critical component of human progress; regrettably, colonialism codified and perpetuated class divides in Nigeria in manners that underlying structures and patterns of material production and distribution in the country have deprived a great majority of persons in the country to attain education. This has also bequeathed unequal distributions of rights and powers among and between distinct groups in the Nigerian society. Data was collected through primary and secondary sources. Findings established that education in Nigeria creates and maintains classes by restricting access to certain forms of knowledge to a confined group of individuals while denying others access. Education offers different kinds of knowledge to different people thereby preparing them unequally for different roles in society. The paper concludes that education creates and maintains a class structure in Nigeria that promotes inquality. The paper recommends that Nigeria should review its educational policies to make room for wider access at all levels of education.

Author Biography

Agwadu, Lhebade

Department of Political Science,

Federal University Wukari, Nigeria.

agwadu@fuwukari.edu.ng

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Analyzing The Relationship Between Digitalization and Economic Growth in Nigeria Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model

Nekenneri Jerome JAIMU, Barka Ishaya DABARI, Mathias Mathew MADU, Oluwaseun Adeniran SUNDAY

Keywords: Digitalization, economic growth, financial services, globalization, CBN

Abstract 

This paper examines the relationship between digitalization and economic growth in Nigeria between 2012Q3 to 2020Q4 using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The rapid growth in information communication technologies (ICT) and the use of cellular technology in the expansion of digital financial transactions in Nigeria complicate undrstandings on how these have contributed to economic growth in the country. Thus, this study analyzed internet subscriptions and gross fixed capital formation data from telecommunications quarterly reports of the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics. Also, data on real gros domestic product (GDP), ICT contribution to GDP and digital financial services were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistics database. Empirical findings of this study revealed that there is a long-run relationship between digitalization and economic growth in Nigeria. Likewise, a long-run positive relationship was found between internet subscriptions, digital financial services, gross fixed capital formation and ICT contribution to GDP. However, the magnitude of the impact of digital financial services is low traceable to the slow pace at which the Nigerian population is adopting digital technologies and the diminished trust in digital financial services arising from the activities of Ponzi schemes. The study concludes that there is a positive relationship between digitalization and economic growth in Nigeria. Hence, targeted financial literacy campaigns should be carried out by financial institutions, Central Bank of Nigeria and civil society organizations to enable people better understand and make use of digital financial services that suit their needs and also increase their trust in these services.

Author Biography 

Nekenneri Jerome JAIMU

Barka Ishaya DABARI

Mathias Mathew MADU

Department of Cooperative Economics and Management,

Adamawa State Polytechnic,Yola

Oluwaseun Adeniran SUNDAY

Department of Economics, Federal University Wukari

Correspondence: jeromejaimu@gmail.com

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Public Relations and Communication Strategies for Promoting Tsangaya (Almajiri) Education in Nigeria

Suleiman Garba, Abraham Habu Ekpo

Keywords: Almajiri, communication strategy, education, public relations, tsangaya

Abstract 

The Tsangaya education system, also known as the Almajiri system, is a traditional Islamic education system in Nigeria that faces significant challenges such as inadequate funding, infrastructure and negative societal attitudes towards the Almajiris. Effective communication and engagement strategies with key stakeholders are essential to address these challenges and promote the system's benefits. This prescriptive study examines the present state of communication strategies and public relations in Nigeria for promoting the Tsangaya education system and presents recommendations for enhancing these strategies. Findings suggest that various public relations and communication strategies such as media relations, crisis management, collaboration, and education are effective in addressing the challenges faced by the system, creating awareness among stakeholders, and building goodwill for the system. The study concludes that effective communication and engagement strategies with key stakeholders are essential to addressing the problems challenging Tsangaya education in Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that policymakers and educational stakeholders adopt effective communication and public relations strategies to promote the Tsangaya education system and improve its quality, ultimately contributing to Nigeria's socio-economic development.

Author Biography

Suleiman Garba

Department of Mass Communication,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi

suleimangarba22@gmail.com

Abraham Habu Ekpo

Information and Protocol Unit,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi

abrahamekpo76@gmail.com

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Impact of Education and Health Expenditures on Human Capital Development in Kaduna State, Nigeria

BOGNET Alfred Cyprain, Peter Adamu, Elisha Menson, Peter P. Njiforti

Keywords: Human capital, education, health, budget, Kaduna

Abstract

The growth and development of any nation depend on how well its human capital is being developed in terms of government spending in education and health. However, it is not yet clear on the extent to which Kaduna State Government expenditures on health and education over the years have boosted the human capital development in the State. For instance, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have insisted that 26% of the annual budgets of a government should be allocated to education. This study therefore examines Kaduna State Government’s expenditures on education and health between the years 1990 to 2019, and how these impact human capital development in the State. The study used primary school enrollment data and these were analyzed through the lens of autoregressive distribution lag (ARDL) Model. The study’s results revealed that in the long-run, education expenditures have significant positive impact on human capital development in Kaduna State, while health expenditures of Kaduna State Government has insignificant positive impact on human capital development in the State. Overall, in the short-run, both education and health expenditures of the Kaduna State Government have positive and significant impact on human capital development in the State. The study concludes that Kaduna State Government expenditures on education and health contribute significantly to the growth of human capital development in the State. The study recommends that the Kaduna State Government neeed to further increase budgetary allocations to education and health in order to ensure continuous boost of human capital development (HCD).

Author Biography 

BOGNET Alfred Cyprain

Kaduna State Planning and Budget Commission

Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria

alfredbognet7@gmail.com

Peter Adamu (PhD)

Economics Department, Kaduna State University,

Kaduna, Nigeria

peter.adamu@kasu.edu.ng; peteradamu@gmail.com

Auta Elisha Menson (PhD)

Economics Department, Kaduna State University, Kaduna autaelisham@gmail.com

Prof Peter P. Njiforti

Economics Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

njifortica@yahoo.com ppnjiforti@abu.edu.ng

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